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Circuit diagrams were used in all jobs that were done. The design and reading skills of different types of drawing used in industry were developed. The types of drawings used were engineering drawings, building plan drawings and equipment connections drawings. 


Power supply is a reference to a source of electrical power. A power supply supplies electrical energy to a load or group of loads. The regulation of power supplies is done by including a circuit to tightly control the output voltage and/or current of the power supply through a feed back mechanism to a specific value. The specific value is closely maintained despite variations in the load presented to the power supply’s output, or any reasonable voltage variation at the power supply’s input. This kind of regulation is commonly categorized as a regulated power supply. A simple unregulated power supply consists of a transformer to step down the AC main voltage to a required low voltage. This is followed by a bridge rectifier to convert the AC to DC. At the end, a capacitor is used to smooth the voltage. 

Types of power sources

  • Conversion of one form of electrical power to another desired form and voltage. This typically involves converting 220 volt AC to a low voltage DC . For examples: switched-mode power supply, linear regulated power supply, and inverter.
  • Batteries and fuel cells
  • Solar panels
  • Generators or alternators

To fault find any electronic system, the power supply as to be checked if it supplies power when the equipment is completely off. To check a power supply, one should check the input fuse first, the transformer, the bridge rectifier and the capacitor and regulator follow.


Programmable devices are ICs that can be programmed to perform a specific task like a PIC Microcontroller, 8051, ARM, Atmel… 

Many programming languages have been developed to program ICs.
Some controllers (like access control controllers) need specific software developed by the manufacturer to program them. PIC microcontroller is widely used in industry today for wide range of application because of its low cost. Microchip provides a freeware IDE package called MPLAB, which includes an assembler, linker, software simulator, and debugger. Several third parties make C, BASIC and Pascal language compilers for PICs, many of which integrate to MPLAB and/or feature their own IDE. 
A blockset for Matlab/Simulink allow one to generate C and binary files from a simulink model. A programmer is used to get program code into the target PIC. Most PICs that Microchip currently sell feature ICSP (In Circuit Serial Programming) and/or LVP (Low Voltage Programming) capabilities, allowing the PIC to be programmed while it is sitting in the target circuit There are many programmers for PIC microcontrollers, ranging from the extremely simple designs which rely on ICSP to allow direct download of code from a host computer, to intelligent programmers that can verify the device at several supply voltages.Many of these complex programmers use a pre-programmed PIC themselves to send the programming commands to the PIC that is to be programmed.
The intelligent type of programmer is needed to program earlier PIC models (mostly EPROM type) which do not support in-circuit programming. You can download the full P1 Semester Report Sample 1 pdf below:

Download: Semester report P1

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